Proof Saturated Fats
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The Low-Fat Diet Actually Causes Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Cancer.
This is the true story of an acquaintance who has been living according to the recommendations of the American Medical Association (AMA), American Heart Association (AHA), and the American Diabetic Association (ADA), but still got hypoglycemia at age 52, plugged heart arteries at age 59, and degenerative disc disease at age 62. There are millions of these cases each year in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, and Australia. This is the story of a real person.
Australians more obese than Americans, study finds - June 19, 2008.
David is a doctor employed at the local hospital. His wife, Susie, also works there. They have followed the AMA and AHA recommended low-fat diet religiously for most of their adult lives. They always picked the low-fat selections in the grocery store and ate lots of "healthy" fruit and whole grains. They did recognize the necessity of eating meat, but they always selected the low-fat cuts, removed the visible fat on their plates, and always removed the skin from chicken.
Dr. David and Susie were "health nuts." They jogged several times a week until it damaged Susie's knees. The switch was then made to hiking the mountain where they live and riding bikes on the mountain roads. Exercise was a major priority. They ran the local 10K race every year. When Susie could no longer run because of her knees, David continued to run the race religiously. It was the highlight of their health activity.
Neither Dr. David nor Susie was ever fat or overweight. They never went on yo-yo diets because it wasn't necessary. They never smoked or drank alcohol which was very much against their religion and health rules. They didn't eat many simple carbohydrates like sugar and white flour. They presented bodies that appeared to be the optimum in health, but inside they were sick, sick, sick.
Saturated fats do not cause heart disease and never did. The unhealthy fats are corn, cottonseed, and soybean oils.
By age 52 Dr. David was having blood sugar metabolism problems. His blood sugar would surge when he ate his normal high-carbohydrate meals but plunge later giving the typical symptoms of someone who is pre-diabetic. Being a doctor, David followed the recommendations of the American Diabetic Association (ADA) by snacking on peanut butter and crackers between meals in order to keep his blood sugar stable. Dr. David's biggest disadvantage was being a doctor because he believed the nonsense put forth by the above professional societies. The low-fat diet is always high in carbohydrates and produces high blood insulin levels. Dr. David is suffering because he believed the "big fat lies" about the low-fat diet.
Reversing Heart Disease, Heart Attack, Coronary Artery Disease, Stent, HDL, and LDL Cholesterol Success Stories
Dr. David was complacent about learning nutritional facts and didn't question recommendations put forth by his professional societies. He didn't do his own research into the history of heart disease. If he had, he would have discovered that heart disease was so rare in 1900 it was not listed in the medical books. He didn't realize the cookbooks of the era show people eating lots of saturated fat in the form of pork lard, beef suet, butter, eggs, and coconut oil. Eating the skin from chicken and turkey was considered the "best part of the bird." Dr. David still doesn't realize the low-fat diet is an attempt by vegetarians to discourage the eating of animals and has nothing to do with healthy nutrition. He doesn't realize how deadly carbohydrates like fruit, bread, whole grains, cereals, sugar, flour, rice, legumes, potatoes, and soy really are.
Dr. David and Susie were proud that they considered themselves health and diet extremists. They followed the popular exercise and diet recommendations to the letter. They still think the USDA Food Guide Pyramid is a healthy way of eating because it is fully supported by his professional medical societies.
Dr. David is now forced to decide which mechanical method to use to unplug his heart arteries. He doesn't believe diet and exercise can help. What can he eat? He has been on the recommended low-fat diet for many years. His exercise has been unrelenting. His lifestyle was in perfect accordance with all the recommendations. His doctors will no doubt recommend the same diet for the cure when actually it was the cause of his heart disease. Dr. David is in big trouble. What does a doctor do now? His erroneous training had double-crossed him, and he doesn't even know it.
The dual keys to the prevention and removal of partial atheromas are keeping insulin low and HDL cholesterol high. This is only possible on the low-carbohydrate diet.
Dr. David's declining health hasn't stopped there. He developed degenerative disc disease in his back that required the fusing of two vertebrae. He and Susie still eat lots of fresh fruit, dried fruit, and yogurt with fruit as recommended by his profession for healthy bones. Now she has been diagnosed with cancer and has had a heart pacemaker implanted in her chest. They do not realize their high-carbohydrate diet is slowly killing them.
Reversing Heart Disease, Heart Attack, Coronary Artery Disease, Stent, HDL, and LDL Cholesterol Success Stories
Cancer - The Cause, Prevention, Treatment, Control, and Spontaneous Remission of Cancer of the Breast, Prostate, Lung, Colon, Liver, Pancreas, Brain, Bone, Lymph Gland, or Skin Melanoma
Diabetes - The Cause, Prevention, Treatment, and Control of Hypoglycemia and Type 1 and 2 Diabetes
Preventing Osteoporosis, Bone Loss, Hip Fractures, and Degenerative Disc Disease.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, IBD, IBS, Crohn's, Ulcerative Colitis, Candida, and Others.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Lupus, and Asthma Autoimmune Diet Program
Insulin and Its Metabolic Effects by Ron Rosedale, M.D.
Books, literature, and websites are exploding with the statement, "artery-clogging long-chain saturated fats are derived from animals." This statement has one major scientific error. The fats found in clogged arteries are primarily omega-6 fatty acids obtained from eating whole grains, seeds, most nuts, and vegetable oils, not from red meat or other animal fats.
Relation of Plaque Lipid Composition and Morphology to the Stability of Human Aortic Plaques.
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) conducted the Framingham Study over a period of 20 years starting in 1948. According to NHLBI Director Dr. Claude Lenfant, This study suggests that obesity is an important risk factor for heart failure in both women and men." The study found a small correlation between heart disease, elevated LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol. The Framingham study also found that those who ate the most saturated fat, the most calories, and the most cholesterol were the most physically active. They also weighed the least and had the lowest levels of serum cholesterol. The people who ate the most saturated fat were the most healthy and had the lowest risk of heart disease.
NHLBI Framingham Heart Study.
NHLBIs Framingham Heart Study Finds Strong Link Between
Overweight/Obesity And Risk For Heart Failure.
This web site will prove the most healthy diet for humans is:
70% total fat on a calorie basis
31% saturated fat
7% polyunsaturated fat
25% monounsaturated fat
7% other fats
3% carbohydrates (20 gm of which 3 gm or less is fiber).
Nutrition, Healing, Health, Protein, Fat, Carbohydrate, and Cholesterol Science.
Top Ten Nutritional Myths, Distortions, and Lies That Will Destroy Your Health.
Top Ten Historical Events That Created Our Current Health & Nutritional Quagmire.
Fried eggs and bacon breakfast.
Note: The bacon is cured without sugar and low-sodium.
This is a zero carbohydrate, zero fiber meal without vegetables, fruit or grains.
Heart disease is caused by excessive blood insulin from eating fruit, whole grains, cereals, breads, pasta, and sugar. If you believe heart disease is caused by eating saturated fats, you have been brainwashed.
Reversing Heart Disease, Heart Attack, Coronary Artery Disease, Stent, HDL, and LDL Cholesterol Success Stories
Brainwashing, Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychotic, Sociology, Sociopath, Schizophrenia, Anorexia, Bulimia, Depression, Obsessive-Compulsive, Paranoia, Phobia, Addiction, and Other Mental and Personality Disorders.
Grilled lamb shoulder steak lunch with grilled pork fat.
Note: The pork fat was raw fat before grilling, not cured bacon.
This is a zero carbohydrate, zero fiber meal without vegetables, fruit or grains.
The Eskimos thrived for
thousands of years on a 100% meat diet with lots of saturated fat.
North American Plains Indians did the same on buffalo pemmican consisting of 75% fat.
Eskimos Prove An All Meat Diet Provides Excellent Health.
Roast chicken dinner with two wings and a whole leg with the skin.
Note: The au jus cup is chicken fat drippings. All is consumed.
This is a zero carbohydrate, zero fiber meal without vegetables, fruit or grains.
Absolute Scientific Proof Carbohydrates Are Pathogenic.
Dietary Fiber Theory. Scientific Proof Fiber in the Diet is Unhealthy.
Recent Testimonies From Ex-Vegetarians with Degenerative Disc Disease, Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn's Disease, and Candida
Note: The ex-vegetarian below switched to a high-fat, red meat diet with awesome health improvements. The vegetarian diet caused degenerative disc disease and intestinal diseases.
"I thought I would sign in for a progress report! I am doing very well. So far, so good. I am down to 2 BM's a day, and bleeding has disappeared. I am eating a very balanced diet (from the "Starting Diet" below) and it seems as if I am able to tolerate a lot of the red meat now. Thank you for all your advice, and I hope all is well with you."
Note: The report below from Sweden is typical of the denial by doctors. Don't expect your doctor to agree with this diet program. Most likely your doctor will object strongly. Neither will he give the diet any credit for your healing.
"I have been following your diet for a couple of months. I eat mostly moose meat with coconut fat. I had a colonoscopy three days ago and guess what? No inflammation! My colon looked so good my doctor said the previous inflammation could not have been from a flare. Yeah, right! I know it was a bad flare, but I am fine now. Your page was the first site to open my eyes to the dangers of eating carbs. Keep up the good work."
Note: The report below tells how this diet program works where other diets have failed.
"Thanks for your information, it's been very helpful. I've taken your advice, and I've eliminated many of the offending foods that were allowed on another type of IBD diet that I thought were alright. That diet includes yogurt, melon, goat's cheese and surprisingly, the most helpful of all carrots! I've gone almost a year thinking that I couldn't tolerate butter and fatty meat, and suddenly they cause me no problem. I was having a flare for three weeks, and just beginning with the principals of your diet (not including the supplements and minerals) has gotten me back to normality in less than a week. It's a wonder!
Saturated fats are an absolute necessity for infant brain development and growth. Saturated fats in the infant's diet are necessary to have a child with a high IQ and good athletic skills. Healthy brain cells and other body cells are made with a large percentage of saturated fats. Mother's breast milk is very high in saturated fats, especially lauric saturated fatty acid. This is the same fat that is found in coconut oil.
Saturated fat prevents coronary artery disease? An American paradox 1, 2
Robert H Knoppand Barbara M Retzlaff
1 From the Northwest Lipid Research Clinic, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle
2 Address reprint requests to RH Knopp, Northwest Lipid Research Clinic, University of Washington, School of Medicine, 325 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104. E-mail: email@example.com.
See corresponding article on page 1175.
It is an article of faith that saturated fat raises LDL cholesterol and accelerates coronary artery disease, whereas unsaturated fatty acids have the opposite effect (1, 2). One of the earliest and most convincing studies of the better efficacy of unsaturated than of saturated fat in reducing cholesterol and heart disease is the Finnish Mental Hospital Study conducted in the 12 y between 1959 and 1971. In this study, the usual high-saturated-fat institutional diet was compared with an equally high-fat diet in which the saturated fat in dairy products was replaced with soybean oil and soft margarine and polyunsaturated fats were used in cooking. Each diet was provided for 6 y and then the alternate diet was provided for the next 6 y (3). After a comparison of the effects of the 2 diets in both men and women, the incidence of coronary artery disease was lower by 50% and 65% after the consumption of polyunsaturated fat in the 2 hospitals.
In this issue of the Journal, Mozaffarian et al (4) report the opposite association. They found that a higher saturated fat intake is associated with less progression of coronary artery disease according to quantitative angiography. How can this paradox be explained? In food-frequency questionnaires, saturated fat intake is more precisely estimated than is total fat. If saturated fat is more precisely estimated, it will associate more strongly in statistical analyses with the outcome variable, even though other variables—such as total fat or carbohydrate—could be more relevant physiologically. We believe that these possibilities deserve a closer look.
Unlike the diet used in the Finnish Mental Hospital Study, the diet described by Mozaffarian et al was low in fat, averaging 25% of energy. The study subjects were women with coronary artery disease: most were hypertensive, many had diabetes (19–31%), their body mass index (kg/m2) ranged from 29 to 30, and their lipid profile indicated combined hyperlipidemia (triacylglycerol concentration: 200 mg/dL; HDL-cholesterol concentration: 40–50 mg/dL; above-average LDL concentration: 135–141 mg/dL); these characteristics are consistent with the metabolic syndrome. In addition, two-thirds of these women were taking sex hormones. The importance of each of these points is addressed below.
What are the effects of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet in comparison with those of a higher-fat, lower-carbohydrate diet? The response differs by the 2 main types of hyperlipidemia: simple hypercholesterolemia and combined hyperlipidemia. In our studies of simple hypercholesterolemia in men, a fat intake <25% of energy and a carbohydrate intake >60% of energy was associated with a sustained increase in triacylglycerol of 40%, a decrease in HDL cholesterol of 3.5%, and no further decrease in LDL in comparison with higher fat intakes (5). In contrast, a low-fat diet in persons with combined hyperlipidemia caused no worsening of triacylglycerol or HDL, but intakes of fat >40% of energy and of carbohydrate <45% of energy for 2 y were associated with a lower triacylglycerol concentration at a stable weight (6). In the subjects of Mozaffarian et al, a greater saturated fat intake paralleled a total fat intake, which ranged from 18% to 32% of energy in the first to fourth quartiles. Modest favorable trends in triacylglycerol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations were observed with higher fat intakes.
Triacylglycerol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are stronger predictors of coronary artery disease in women, whereas the LDL-cholesterol concentration is a stronger predictor in men (7). Because VLDL triacylglycerol secretion and removal rates in healthy women are double those of men (8), conditions impairing lipoprotein removal would be expected to exaggerate the hyperlipidemic response in women as compared with that in men (9). This sex difference is seen with the development of diabetes. The increment in lipids is greater in women than in men and is associated with a greater increment in coronary artery disease risk in women than in men (9). Similarly, the development of insulin resistance and obesity is associated with a greater lipoprotein increment in women than in men (10). The exaggerated decreases in HDL- and HDL2-cholesterol concentrations observed with the consumption of a low-fat Step II diet in women but not in men appear to be another facet of this effect (11).
The failure of female sex hormones to prevent coronary artery disease has been a great disappointment (9). This effect might also be due to an estrogen-induced increase in lipoprotein entry against a fixed or impaired rate of lipoprotein removal, as might be expected in women with the metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease.
Would saturated fat still be bad for anyone? Not necessarily. The effect of saturated fat and cholesterol ingestion in the form of 4 eggs/d for 1 mo in obese, insulin-resistant subjects is 33% of that seen in lean, insulin-sensitive subjects, likely because of diminished cholesterol absorption (12). Thus, the classic effects of saturated fat as compared with those of unsaturated fat seen in the Finnish Mental Hospital Study are likely blunted in the subjects of Mozaffarian et al, whereas the effects of low fat and high carbohydrate intakes on triacylglycerol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations appear to be exaggerated by the interactions of female sex, exogenous sex hormones, and the metabolic syndrome. A major effect on cardiovascular disease risk would be the result of hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol concentrations, which are attenuated by an increase in saturated fat intake itself or in total fat intake, for which saturated fat is a more statistically stable surrogate (4).
In conclusion, the hypothesis-generating report of Mozaffarian et al draws attention to the different effects of diet on lipoprotein physiology and cardiovascular disease risk. These effects include the paradox that a high-fat, high–saturated fat diet is associated with diminished coronary artery disease progression in women with the metabolic syndrome, a condition that is epidemic in the United States. This paradox presents a challenge to differentiate the effects of dietary fat on lipoproteins and cardiovascular disease risk in men and women, in the different lipid disorders, and in the metabolic syndrome.
Kinsell LW, Michaels GD, Cochrane GC, Partridge JW, Jahn JP, Balch HE. Effect of vegetable fat on hypercholesterolemia and hyperphospholipidemia: observations on diabetic and nondiabetic subjects given diets high in vegetable fat and protein. Diabetes 1954;3:113-9. [Medline]
Grundy SM, Denke MA. Dietary influences on serum lipids and lipoproteins. J Lipid Res 1990;31:1149-72. [Abstract]
Miettinen M, Turpeinen O, Karvonen MJ, Elosuo R, Paavilainen E. Effect of cholesterol-lowering diet on mortality from coronary heart-disease and other causes. A twelve-year clinical trial in men and women. Lancet 1972;2:835-8. [Medline]
Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB, Herrington DM. Dietary fats, carbohydrate, and progression of coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1175-84.
[Abstract/Free Full Text]
Knopp RH, Walden CE, Retzlaff BM, et al. Long-term cholesterol-lowering effects of 4 fat-restricted diets in hypercholesterolemic and combined hyperlipidemic men. The Dietary Alternatives Study. JAMA 1997;278:1509-15. [Abstract]
Retzlaff BM, Walden CE, Dowdy AA, McCann BS, Anderson KV, Knopp RH. Changes in plasma triacylglycerol concentrations among free-living hyperlipidemic men adopting different carbohydrate intakes over 2 y: the Dietary Alternatives Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62:988-95. [Abstract]
Knopp RH, Zhu X, Bonet B. Effects of estrogens on lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular disease in women. Atherosclerosis 1994;110(suppl):S83-91. [Medline]
Mittendorfer B, Patterson BW, Klein S. Effect of sex and obesity on basal VLDL-triacylglycerol kinetics. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:573-9.
[Abstract/Free Full Text]
Barrett-Connor E, Giardina EG, Gitt AK, Gudat U, Steinberg HO, Tschoepe D. Women and heart disease: the role of diabetes and hyperglycemia. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:934-42.
[Abstract/Free Full Text]
Aikawa K, Retzlaff B, Fish B, et al. Dyslipidemia of insulin resistance and obesity: gender differences. Circulation 2002;106(suppl 2):II-75 (abstr 377).
Walden CE, Retzlaff BM, Buck BL, Wallick S, McCann BS, Knopp RH. Differential effect of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step II diet on HDL cholesterol, its subfractions, and apoprotein A-I levels in hypercholesterolemic women and men after 1 year: the beFIT Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:1580-7.
[Abstract/Free Full Text]
Knopp RH, Retzlaff B, Fish B, et al. Effects of insulin resistance and obesity on lipoproteins and sensitivity to egg feeding. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003;23:1437-43.
[Abstract/Free Full Text]
Dietary fats, carbohydrate, and progression of coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women 1
Dariush Mozaffarian, Eric B Rimmand David M Herrington
1 From the Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, and the Departments of Epidemiology and Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston (DM and EBR); the Health Services Research and Development Program, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle (DM); the Cardiovascular Nutrition Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston (AHL and ATE); and the Section on Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, and the Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (DMH)
Background: The influence of diet on atherosclerotic progression is not well established, particularly in postmenopausal women, in whom risk factors for progression may differ from those for men.
Objective: The objective was to investigate associations between dietary macronutrients and progression of coronary atherosclerosis among postmenopausal women.
Design: Quantitative coronary angiography was performed at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 3.1 y in 2243 coronary segments in 235 postmenopausal women with established coronary heart disease. Usual dietary intake was assessed at baseline.
Results: The mean (±SD) total fat intake was 25 ± 6% of energy. In multivariate analyses, a higher saturated fat intake was associated with a smaller decline in mean minimal coronary diameter (P = 0.001) and less progression of coronary stenosis (P = 0.002) during follow-up. Compared with a 0.22-mm decline in the lowest quartile of intake, there was a 0.10-mm decline in the second quartile (P = 0.002), a 0.07-mm decline in the third quartile (P = 0.002), and no decline in the fourth quartile (P < 0.001); P for trend = 0.001. This inverse association was more pronounced among women with lower monounsaturated fat (P for interaction = 0.04) and higher carbohydrate (P for interaction = 0.004) intakes and possibly lower total fat intake (P for interaction = 0.09). Carbohydrate intake was positively associated with atherosclerotic progression (P = 0.001), particularly when the glycemic index was high. Polyunsaturated fat intake was positively associated with progression when replacing other fats (P = 0.04) but not when replacing carbohydrate or protein. Monounsaturated and total fat intakes were not associated with progression.
Conclusions: In postmenopausal women with relatively low total fat intake, a greater saturated fat intake is associated with less progression of coronary atherosclerosis, whereas carbohydrate intake is associated with a greater progression.
Study Proves Eating Saturated Fat Increase Good HDL Cholesterol
HDL-subpopulation patterns in response to reductions in dietary total and saturated fat intakes in healthy subjects1,2,3
Lars Berglund, Elizabeth H Oliver, Nelson Fontanez, Steve Holleran, Karen Matthews, Paul S Roheim, Henry N Ginsberg, Rajasekhar Ramakrishnan, Michael Lefevre and for the DELTA Investigators from the Department of Medicine and Pediatrics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York; Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA; and the Department of Physiology, Louisiana State University Medical School, New Orleans.
Background: Little information is available about HDL subpopulations during dietary changes.
Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of reductions in total and saturated fat intakes on HDL subpopulations.
Design: Multiracial, young and elderly men and women (n = 103) participating in the double-blind, randomized DELTA (Dietary Effects on Lipoproteins and Thrombogenic Activities) Study consumed 3 different diets, each for 8 wk: an average American diet (AAD: 34.3% total fat,15.0% saturated fat), the American Heart Association Step I diet (28.6% total fat, 9.0% saturated fat), and a diet low in saturated fat (25.3% total fat, 6.1% saturated fat).
Results: HDL2-cholesterol concentrations, by differential precipitation, decreased (P < 0.001) in a stepwise fashion after the reduction of total and saturated fat: 0.58 ± 0.21, 0.53 ± 0.19, and 0.48 ± 0.18 mmol/L with the AAD, Step I, and low-fat diets, respectively. HDL3 cholesterol decreased (P < 0.01) less: 0.76 ± 0.13, 0.73 ± 0.12, and 0.72 ± 0.11 mmol/L with the AAD, Step I, and low-fat diets, respectively. As measured by nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, the larger-size HDL2b subpopulation decreased with the reduction in dietary fat, and a corresponding relative increase was seen for the smaller-sized HDL3a, 3b, and 3c subpopulations (P < 0.01). HDL2-cholesterol concentrations correlated negatively with serum triacylglycerol concentrations on all 3 diets: r = -0.46, -0.37, and -0.45 with the AAD, Step I, and low-fat diets, respectively (P < 0.0001). A similar negative correlation was seen for HDL2b, whereas HDL3a, 3b, and 3c correlated positively with triacylglycerol concentrations. Diet-induced changes in serum triacylglycerol were negatively correlated with changes in HDL2 and HDL2b cholesterol.
Conclusions: A reduction in dietary total and saturated fat decreased both large (HDL2 and HDL2b) and small, dense HDL subpopulations, although decreases in HDL2 and HDL2b were most pronounced.
American Heart Association's
Own 1998 Study Proves They Distort Nutritional Facts
The following quote is the summary of a study on the effects of increasing saturated fat in the diet. You will notice in the bold text (emphasis mine) that reducing saturated fat increased heart disease risk by increasing lipoprotein (a). The study also replaced the calories lost by reducing saturated fat with carbohydrates. This change increased the triglycerides by 10 percent. Triglycerides have been solidly proven to be related to increased risk of heart disease. The study shows that a reduction in saturated fat actually increase heart disease risk in both lipoprotein (a) and triglycerides, but they conclude that one should reduce the intake of saturated fats and replace them with carbohydrates because of a slight reduction in LDL and total cholesterol, neither of which is solidly linked to heart disease. Dr. Robert C. Atkins and others maintain that lipoprotein (a) and triglycerides have the strongest link to heart disease. The study also showed that a reduction in saturated fat in the diet lowered the good HDL and thus was another marker for increased risk of heart disease. This 1998 study sponsored by the American Heart Association clearly shows the myths, distortions, and lies put forth by the established medical and nutritional community concerning the true healthy effects of saturated fats in the diet.
New Study Details the Saturated Fat - Cholesterol Link
Lowering dietary saturated fat leads to uniform fall in cholesterol across age, gender, and race provided by American Heart Association.
Whether you are male or female, black or white, old or young, taking fat out of your diet will lower blood cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of a heart attack or stroke, according to a study in the March 1998 issue of Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology: Journal of the American Heart Association. The study's authors say they are the first to show in a single study that there is a uniform response on cholesterol levels from cutting out fat in the diets of people of different ages, ethnic backgrounds, races, and gender. The study also revealed several unexpected and disconcerting responses to lower-fat diets. Blood levels of high-density lipoprotein, HDL, which can lower the risk of heart disease, also fell, although the declines in black people and older white men were less affected.
Cholesterol, a pearly fat-like substance found in animal fats and oils, can collect inside the blood vessels, causing obstructions that may set the stage for a heart attack or stroke. Cholesterol is transported through the blood on "carriers" called lipoproteins. Low-density lipoprotein, LDL, is called the "bad" cholesterol because it takes cholesterol to the blood vessel walls. HDL, the "good" cholesterol carries cholesterol to the liver and away from the blood vessels.
Staying in step
The study tested the American Heart Association and the National Cholesterol Education Program Step 1 and Step 2 diets on reducing cholesterol. LDL dropped about one percent for every one percent drop in saturated fat calories, says lead author Henry N. Ginsberg, M.D., professor of medicine and head of the division of preventive medicine and nutrition at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City.
Step 1 and Step 2 diets are for treatment of high blood cholesterol. Initial dietary recommendations for patients on Step 1 are similar to those advocated by the AHA for the public. For those already on the Step 1 diet, further reductions in saturated fat and cholesterol Step 2 should achieve more cholesterol lowering.
The Step 1 diet contains 30 percent or fewer calories from fat, with no more than eight to ten percent from saturated fat. Cholesterol intake is 300 milligrams a day or less. The Step 2 diet reduces saturated fat to seven percent and total cholesterol to 200 milligrams a day or less.
Total cholesterol fell for the whole group by 5 percent on the Step 1 diet and 9 percent on the Step 2 diet. LDL averaged 7 percent lower when people ate the Step 1 diet and 11 percent lower on the Step 2 diet. These kind of reductions may translate into a 15 to 20 percent reduction in risk of coronary heart disease, say the researchers.
Other studies, particularly those comparing countries with different diets and culture, have indicated that lower HDL cholesterol concentrations in populations consuming low-fat diets do not lead to an increased risk of coronary heart disease, the cause of heart attacks. "HDL declines whenever you remove saturated fat from the diet," Ginsberg explains. "The question of whether this drop in HDL might affect heart risk remains open," he says, "but no one questions the value of lowering LDL." To their surprise, the researchers found that blood levels of lipoprotein (a) a cousin to LDL that at elevated levels appears to increase the risk of coronary heart disease went up 15 percent as saturated fat fell from 15 percent of calories to 6 percent of calories. "On face value, it would appear this is not the best thing to happen," Ginsberg acknowledges. "We know that lowering LDL is good for you. We don't know exactly what it means when you eat a low-fat diet and your lipoprotein (a) levels go up. We need to look at this more closely with further studies."
Triglycerides, another fatty substance associated with increased heart risk at high levels, rose about 10 percent on the American Heart Association Step 1 diet in comparison to the average American diet, but showed no further rise when people ate the low-saturated fat diet, Ginsberg says. The lipoprotein (a) and triglycerides findings aside, Ginsberg sees the lower-fat diet as a healthier diet. "The message is unchanged. Follow the American Heart Association recommendations and take the saturated fats out of your diet and eat more fruits and vegetables," he says.
Researchers at four medical centers Columbia University, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Penn State University and University of Minnesota each recruited 25 to 30 healthy individuals with normal concentrations of blood fats. Of the 103 volunteers who completed the study, 46 were men and 57 women, ranging in age from 22 to 67 years old. Thirty percent of the women and 20 percent of the men were black. Eighteen of the women were postmenopausal and 16 of the men were 40 or older. The volunteers ate three different diets for eight weeks each, although not in the same order, with a break of four to six weeks between each diet.
In the average American diet, 34.3 percent of the calories came from total fat and 15 percent from saturated fat. In the American Heart Association Step 1 and Step 2 diets, the calorie counts were 28.6 percent and 25.3 percent total fat and 9 percent and 6.1 percent saturated fat. Carbohydrates replaced the calories lost by reducing the fat content in the two lower-fat diets. All three diets contained 300 milligrams a day of cholesterol. Blood fats were measured weekly during the final four weeks on each diet.
"This is really the gold standard study," Ginsberg says. "No study had ever monitored the chemical nutrient makeup of the diet on an ongoing basis throughout. We were sending weekly samples to a laboratory to make sure the diet was on target the entire way." Most dietary-fat studies have included young middle-aged white males, but no one knew for certain if these findings about fat held true for other groups. Some small studies suggested men might respond differently from women and blacks differently from whites. "Now we can say that when you lower saturated fat in the diets of healthy people, it doesn't matter how old you are or if you are black or white, a man or a woman," says Ginsberg. "Everybody in our field could have predicted our results in terms of lowering cholesterol, LDL cholesterol in particular, as we lowered saturated fat in men," Ginsberg says. "However, they would have been really guessing if they had said this would happen in postmenopausal women exactly as it happens in premenopausal women or that it would happen in blacks exactly as it happens in whites. The data weren't there."
Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins, and
Coronary Heart Disease Risk
Abbasi F, McLaughlin T, Lamendola C, Kim HS, Tanaka A, Wang T, Nakajima K, Reaven GM.
American Journal of Cardiology 2000 Jan 1;85(1):45-8
Stanford University School of Medicine, California, USA.
"In this study we compared the effects of variations in dietary fat and carbohydrate (CHO) content on concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in 8, healthy, nondiabetic volunteers. The diets contained, as a percentage of total calories, either 60% CHO, 25% fat, and 15% protein, or 40% CHO, 45% fat, and 15% protein. They were consumed in random order for 2 weeks, with a 2-week washout period in between. Measurements were obtained at the end of each dietary period of plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, remnant lipoprotein (RLP) cholesterol, and RLP triglyceride concentrations, both after an overnight fast and throughout an 8-hour period (8 A.M. to 4 P.M.) in response to breakfast and lunch. The 60% CHO diet resulted in higher (mean +/- SEM) fasting plasma triglycerides (206 +/- 50 vs 113 +/- 19 mg/dl, p = 0.03), RLP cholesterol (15 +/- 6 vs 6 +/- 1 mg/dl, p = 0.005), RLP triglyceride (56 +/- 25 vs 16 +/- 3 mg/dl, p = 0.003), and lower HDL cholesterol (39 +/- 3 vs 44 +/- 3 mg/dl, p = 0.003) concentrations, without any change in LDL cholesterol concentration. Furthermore, the changes in plasma triglyceride, RLP cholesterol, and RLP triglyceride persisted throughout the day in response to breakfast and lunch. These results indicate that the effects of lowfat diets on lipoprotein metabolism are not limited to higher fasting plasma triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol concentrations, but also include a persistent elevation in RLPs. Given the atherogenic potential of these changes in lipoprotein metabolism, it seems appropriate to question the wisdom of recommending that all Americans should replace dietary saturated fat with CHO."
Conclusion: This study proves that saturated fat in the diet should not be replaced with carbohydrates. Coronary heart disease risk factors are increased with an increase consumption of carbohydrates and a reduction in saturated fat in the diet.
A Review of Diet, Fat, and Cholesterol Research
by Voyajer on LowCarber Forum August 4, 2002
Those who have heart disease generally but not always have high blood cholesterol. It is therefore theorized that high cholesterol causes heart disease. This is called a correlation. A correlation is an observation where when something increases, something else increases (a positive correlation) or when something increases, something else decreases (a negative correlation). An example of how correlations don't necessarily prove anything is: In the last 100 years there has been an increase in global warming. And in the last 100 years women's shoe sizes have gotten bigger. Does this show that global warming causes women's feet to get bigger?
So does high cholesterol cause heart disease? Just because many people have high cholesterol that also have heart disease doesn't prove this. Heart disease could cause high cholesterol. Or else high cholesterol could be a normal state for some people and heart disease could be caused by some other factor that causes cholesterol to clog the arteries. This is not a speculative statement as there exist at least two theories of heart disease that may make cholesterol an insignificant factor in heart disease: the homocysteine theory and the C-reactive protein theory.(1, 2)
1. Total serum cholesterol has proven not to be a strong determinant of cardiovascular risk.(3, 4)
2. HDL ratio has been proven to be a better standard to assess cardiovascular risk. What can you eat to raise HDL? Only one thing: fat.(5) All fats raise HDL but saturated fats raise HDL the most.(6)
3. The saturated fats except stearic acid do raise total serum cholesterol levels as shown in controlled and epidemiological studies.(7, 8, 9, 19, 33) This is insignificant if total cholesterol has little to do with heart disease.
4. If you have high cholesterol in most cases there is no need to avoid red meat. This is because only 30% of fats in red meat are composed of the saturated fats that raise cholesterol. What are the other 70%? Stearic acid which has a neutral effect on cholesterol comprises about 15%.(10, 19) About 50% is monounsaturated fat (like olive oil) which does not raise total cholesterol levels but raises HDL the good cholesterol.(25) And the remainder is polyunsaturated fat which lowers total cholesterol levels while raising HDL.(11) One study shows that lean red meat is equal to eating lean white meat.(12) So how do they test whether saturated fats raise cholesterol if red meat has so much of the other fats? One study used tropical oils.(9) Others have used liquid cholesterol products. When a natural diet is used, calculations are made according to percentage of each fat in each product, then elevation of cholesterol is apportioned accordingly.
5. It is beneficial that some saturated fats can raise cholesterol because if blood cholesterol gets too low, people get depressed, commit suicide or die of cancer.(13, 14, 15)
6. Studies are inconsistent regarding saturated fat. In one epidemiological study the more saturated fat one ate, the lower their serum cholesterol was.(16) In another study, saturated fats in the diet were high, but serum cholesterol levels were low.(17) Because the results of studies lack consistency as regards to saturated fats in the diet, there must be some attenuating affect of saturated fats that negates the rise in total serum cholesterol.(19)
7. It is over-simplifying to name one villain, "saturated fat", as the culprit in heart disease especially when the results of studies on saturated fat are contradictory, inconclusive, and ambiguous at best. There are other factors that influence heart disease including but not limited to high glycemic carbohydrate intake, homocysteine, C-reactive protein, oxidative stress, smoking, and exercise to name just a few.(45) A meta-analysis of research to date states, "Despite decades of effort and many thousands of people randomized, there is still only limited and inconclusive evidence of the effects of modification of total, saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fats on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality."(4)
8. In most people, however, if saturated fat raises their blood cholesterol it is probably not an important risk factor for heart disease as HDL is raised along with total cholesterol. It is also important to note that although LDL is raised too, it has been shown that there are two different types of LDL and saturated fats raise the good kind of LDL.(18) Also avoiding saturated fat may not be an important deterrent of heart disease because saturated fat is never alone in natural animal products but accompanied by monounsaturated (olive-oil-type-fats). Therefore, the combination of fats in animal products keep cholesterol levels where they should be which accounts for them not being a significant risk factor.(19)
9. Fat intake in the diet should not be decreased.(20, 19)
10. Protein with 80% from animal products which includes saturated fats lessens risk of heart disease.(21, 22)
11. Lowering saturated fats and cholesterol in the diet lowers HDL and decreases secretion of the good APO A-1 cholesterol.(23, 24)
12. Replacing saturated fats in the diet with carbohydrates is bad for your serum cholesterol and bad in general for your heart disease risk and mortality.(25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30) Carbohydrates are not an essential nutrient in the diet.(31) Carbohydrates increase C-reactive protein thereby increasing risk of heart disease.(32)
13. Some nations that eat a high amount of fats and animal products [Crete(33, 34, 3) and Spain(35)] have less heart disease than nations who eat a little fat. Total fat in the diet is not an indicator.(3, 20)
14. Dietary cholesterol has little impact on total blood cholesterol.(36) Dietary cholesterol does not increase risk for heart disease or stroke.(37) Two-thirds of the population show no change in serum cholesterol levels from intake of cholesterol.(38) Dietary cholesterol accounts for a minimum amount of cholesterol produced by the body. The liver produces most cholesterol in the body. Eating cholesterol down-regulates your body's production of cholesterol.(39)
15. Many people with low cholesterol levels die of heart disease. One article stated: "Indeed, high cholesterol levels alone could only predict at most half of all heart attacks."(2)
16. Many people with exceptionally elevated levels of cholesterol never have a heart attack.(2)
17. Researchers say if a person, group of people or nation has higher serum cholesterol that they are at greater risk for heart disease. Croatia and Japan have high cholesterol but low heart disease.(40, 41) But considering that many people have high cholesterol and do not have heart disease and many with low cholesterol do have heart disease, then this may not be a valid marker of risk.(2)
18. Once the rise in HDL is factored in, studies have shown that saturated fats are less of a risk factor for heart disease than carbohydrate.(19, 42, 43)
19. A lot of people with heart disease have high triglycerides. High triglycerides are a risk factor for heart disease.(44, 45) Eating fat, any kind of fat, lowers triglycerides.(19, 46)
20. The American Heart Association has recommended that people with low HDL go on a diet high in unsaturated fat rather than replacing fat with carbohydrate.(47)
21. Saturated fats do not increase risk of diabetes.(48) The American Diabetes Association has recently recommended a high monounsaturated fat diet to those with diabetes.(49)
22. The American Heart Association says high glycemic carbohydrates are linked to heart disease.(50)
23. The American Heart Association says Americans should eat a 30% fat diet with not less than 15% fat.(47) The American Heart Association says diets less than 15% fat can be dangerous.(51) Ironically, Americans do not know this so they try to eat 0% fat and are ruining their health. However, these guidelines limiting fat intake to 30% do not appear to have support of the studies shown here.
24. Fats are not the cause of obesity.(52, 53) Studies have shown that diets high in fat and low in carbohydrate cause a person to lose weight.(54) high-fat foods like nuts decrease risk of heart disease.(55)
25. Another important consideration is what our bodies were meant to eat. For the last 2.5 million years man has evolved as a hunter/gatherer with emphasis on carnivore-hunter. In the past hundred years man may have evolved a higher consciousness and may want to be vegetarian, but our bodies are genetically still 99.8% Paleolithic man and as such require meat. The leading experts on Paleolithic Nutrition say that man has eaten mostly animal products (likely over 50%) for most of his existence on earth.(56, 57, 58) Another important factor in evolution was man's development of a larger brain vs. body size. The only way this could have happened was with a nutrient dense source. The accepted explanation is "The Expensive Tissue Hypothesis" which states that meat and fat were that source.(59) These studies show that during man's entire history on earth fat intake would have exceeded both carbohydrate and protein intake. Grains are a foreign product in human evolution. For 99.9% of man's existence on earth, man did not eat grain. In fact, man is the only primate to eat cereal grains.(60) Therefore, trying to force our bodies to accept some form of higher consciousness by trying not to eat animal products would be a foreign diet to our system causing an unbalance and malnutrition in ways that science cannot even predict. Imbalance in the human body is the cause of all disease. When the body is perfectly balanced it is disease-free. Imbalance causes cancer, heart disease, autoimmune disease, and death. In other words, man's so-called recent "higher consciousness" is killing him.
26. There is one fat that should be avoided: trans fat (partially hydrogenated oil). Replacement of just 2% of energy from trans unsaturated fats with unsaturated fats would result in a 53% risk reduction for coronary heart disease. The U.S. government Board of Food and Nutrition recently issued a report on trans fat saying "that dietary trans fatty acids are more deleterious with respect to coronary heart disease than saturated fatty acids."(61) This report suggests "a Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of zero."(62)
27. Although the government's Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends that Americans cut their daily saturated fat intake to 10% and certain researchers recommend replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat, there appear to be valid reasons to fear replacing saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats.(63) When the arterial plaque of deceased humans was examined it contained polyunsaturated fats.(64) Oxidation of fats whether it occurs in the body or whether oxidized fat is ingested is known to lead to clogging of the arteries. The fat that oxidizes the easiest is polyunsaturated fat.(65) Saturated fats are the most stable.(66)
Therefore, fat in the diet has never been the problem. Avoiding dietary fat is the problem.
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2. Gary Taubes, Does Inflammation Cut to the Heart of the Matter? Science Magazine Volume 296, Number 5566, Issue of 12 Apr 2002, pp. 242-245.
3. Hu FB, Willett WC, Types of dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease: a critical review. J Am Coll Nutr 2001 Feb;20(1):5-19.
4. Lee Hooper et al, Dietary fat intake and prevention of cardiovascular disease: systematic review. BMJ 2001;322:757-763 (31 March).
5. Niacin also raises HDL. Tavvintharan S, Kashyap ML, The benefits of niacin in atherosclerosis. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2001 Jan; 3(1):74-82.
6. Ridker PM, Stampfer MJ, Rifai N. Novel risk factors for systemic atherosclerosis: a comparison of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, homocysteine, lipoprotein(a), and standard cholesterol screening as predictors of peripheral arterial disease. JAMA 2001 May 16;285(19):2481-5.
7. Pai T, Yeh YY Stearic acid unlike shorter-chain saturated fatty acids is poorly utilized for triacylglycerol synthesis and beta-oxidation in cultured rat hepatocytes. Lipids 1996 Feb;31(2):159-64.
8. Kelly FD, Sinclair AJ, Mann NJ, Turner AH, Raffin FL, Blandford MV, Pike MJ. Short-term diets enriched in stearic or palmitic acids do not alter plasma lipids, platelet aggregation or platelet activation status. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002 Jun;56(6):490-9.
9. Francisco J. Sánchez-Muniz*, Mari Cruz Merinero*, Sonia Rodríguez-Gil*, Jose M Ordovas, Sofía Ródenas and Carmen Cuesta** Dietary Fat Saturation Affects Apolipoprotein AII Levels and HDL Composition in Postmenopausal Women The American Society for Nutritional Sciences. J. Nutr. 132:50-54, 2002.
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13. Kreger BE, Anderson KM, Schatzkin A, Splansky GL.Cancer Serum cholesterol level, body mass index, and the risk of colon cancer. The Framingham Study. 1992 Sep 1;70(5):1038-43
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17. Posner BM, Cupples LA, Franz MM, Gagnon DR. Diet and heart disease risk factors in adult American men and women: the Framingham Offspring-Spouse nutrition studies. Int J Epidemiol 1993 Dec;22(6):1014-25.
18. Dreon DM, Fernstrom HA, Campos H, Blanche P, Williams PT, Krauss RM.Change in dietary saturated fat intake is correlated with change in mass of large low-density-lipoprotein particles in men. Am J Clin Nutr 1998 May;67(5):828-36.
19. Mensink et al. Effect of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins. A meta-analysis of 27 trials. Arterioscler Thromb 1992; 12: 911-9.
20. L.A. Corr, M.F. Oliver The low-fat/low-cholesterol diet is ineffective--European Heart Journal European Heart Journal (1997) 18, 18-22.
21. Frank B Hu, Meir J Stampfer, JoAnn E Manson, Eric Rimm, Graham A Colditz, Frank E Speizer, Charles H Hennekens and Walter C Willett Dietary protein and risk of ischemic heart disease in women American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 70, No. 2, 221-227, August 1999.
22. Frank B Hu and Walter Willett. Reply to TC Campbell. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 71, No. 3, 850-851, March 2000.
23. Velez-Carrasco W, Lichtenstein AH, Welty FK, Li Z, Lamon-Fava S, Dolnikowski GG, Schaefer EJ. Dietary restriction of saturated fat and cholesterol decreases HDL ApoA-I secretion. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999 Apr;19(4):918-24.
24. Brinton E, S. E., Jan Breslow (1990). "A Low-fat Diet Decreases High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Cholesterol Levels by Decreasing HDL Apolipoprotein Transport Rates." J Clin. Invest. 85(January): 144-151.
25. Kris-Etherton PM. AHA Science Advisory: monounsaturated fatty acids and risk of cardiovascular disease. American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation.. 1999;100:1253-1258
26. Simin Liu, JoAnn E Manson, Frank B Hu and Walter C Willett. Reply to DL Katz. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 73, No. 1, 132-133, January 2001.
27. Liu S, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, et al. A prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1455-61.
28. Simin Liu, JoAnn E Manson, Frank B Hu and Walter C Willett, Reply to BO Schneeman, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 73, No. 1, 130-131, January 2001.
29. J Jeppesen, P Schaaf, C Jones, MY Zhou, YD Chen and GM Reaven Effects of low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets on risk factors for ischemic heart disease in postmenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol 65, 1027-1033, 1997.
30. MB Katan, Effect of low-fat diets on plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol 67, 573S-576S, 1998.
31. Eric C Westman Is dietary carbohydrate essential for human nutrition? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 75, No. 5, 951-953, May 2002.
32. Simin Liu, JoAnn E Manson, Julie E Buring, Meir J Stampfer, Walter C Willett and Paul M Ridker, Relation between a diet with a high glycemic load and plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in middle-aged women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 75, No. 3, 492-498, March 2002.
33. Kromhout et al. Dietary saturated and trans fatty acids and cholesterol and 25-year mortality from coronary heart disease: the Seven Countries Study.Prev Med 1995; 24: 308-15
34. Kafatos A, Diacatou A, Voukiklaris G, Nikolakakis N, Vlachonikolis J, Kounali D, Mamalakis G, Dontas AS. Heart disease risk-factor status and dietary changes in the Cretan population over the past 30 y: the Seven Countries Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1997 Jun;65(6):1882-6.
35. L Serra-Majem, L Ribas, R Tresserras, J Ngo and L Salleras. How could changes in diet explain changes in coronary heart disease mortality in Spain? The Spanish paradox American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol 61, 1351S-1359S, 1995.
36. Boucher P, de Lorgeril M, Salen P, Crozier P, Delaye J, Vallon JJ, Geyssant A, Dante R.
Effect of dietary cholesterol on low density lipoprotein-receptor, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, and low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein mRNA expression in healthy humans. Lipids 1998 Dec;33(12):1177-86.
37. Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, Manson JE, Ascherio A, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Spiegelman D, Speizer FE, Sacks FM, Hennekens CH, Willett WC. A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women. JAMA 1999 Apr 21;281(15):1387-94.
38. McNamara DJ. Dietary cholesterol and the optimal diet for reducing risk of atherosclerosis. Can J Cardiol 1995 Oct;11 Suppl G:123G-126G.
39. Jones PJ, Pappu AS, Hatcher L, Li ZC, Illingworth DR, Connor WE, Dietary cholesterol feeding suppresses human cholesterol synthesis measured by deuterium incorporation and urinary mevalonic acid levels. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1996 Oct;16(10):1222-8.
40. Menotti A, Keys A, Blackburn H, Kromhout D, Karvonen M, Nissinen A, Pekkanen J, Punsar S, Fidanza F, Giampaoli S, Seccareccia F, Buzina R, Mohacek I, Nedeljkovic S, Aravanis C, Dontas A, Toshima H, Lanti M. Comparison of multivariate predictive power of major risk factors for coronary heart diseases in different countries: results from eight nations of the Seven Countries Study, 25-year follow-up. J Cardiovasc Risk 1996 Feb;3(1):69-75.
41. Verschuren WM, Jacobs DR, Bloemberg BP, Kromhout D, Menotti A, Aravanis C, Blackburn H, Buzina R, Dontas AS, Fidanza F, et al. Serum total cholesterol and long-term coronary heart disease mortality in different cultures. Twenty-five-year follow-up of the seven countries study. JAMA 1995 Jul 12;274(2):131-6.
42. Walter C Willett, Reply to AE Hardman American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, No. 4, 1061-1062, October 2000.
43. Walter C. Willett Will High-Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diets Reduce the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease? Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 2000 Dec; 225(3):187-90.
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45. Harjai KJ. Potential new cardiovascular risk factors : left ventricular hypertrophy, homocysteine, lipoprotein(a), triglycerides , oxidative stress, and fibrinogen. Ann Intern Med 1999 Sep 7;131(5):376-86.
46. Walter Willett, Meir Stampfer, Nain-Feng Chu, Donna Spiegelman, Michelle Holmes and Eric Rimm Assessment of Questionnaire Validity for Measuring Total Fat Intake using Plasma Lipid Levels as Criteria American Journal of Epidemiology Vol. 154, No. 12 : 1107-1112
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48. Salmeron J, Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rimm EB, Willett WC. Dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in women.Am J Clin Nutr 2001 Jun;73(6):1019-26.
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51. Very low-fat diets may harm some people. BMJ 1998 Feb 21;316(7131):573
52. Willett WC Dietary fat plays a major role in obesity: No. Obesity Review 2002 May;3(2):59-68.
53. Walter C Willett Is dietary fat a major determinant of body fat? Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67(suppl):556S-62S. 1998
54. Westman EC, Yancy WS, Edman JS, Tomlin KF, Perkins CE, Effect of 6-month adherence to a very low-carbohydrate diet program. Am J Med 2002 Jul;113(1):30-6.
55. Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH, Willett WC. Frequent nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women: prospective cohort study. BMJ 1998 Nov 14;317(7169):1341-5.
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What if bad fat isn't so bad?
No one's ever proved that saturated fat clogs arteries, causes heart disease.
By Nina Teicholz
Updated 10:54 a.m. MT, Thurs., Dec. 13, 2007
Secrets of the Edible Oil Industry.
"Science by committee - Like the flourishing American affinity for alternative medicine, an antifat movement evolved independently of science in the 1960s. It was fed by distrust of the establishment--in this case, both the medical establishment and the food industry--and by counterculture attacks on excessive consumption, whether manifested in gas-guzzling cars or the classic American cuisine of bacon and eggs and marbled steaks. And while the data on fat and health remained ambiguous and the scientific community polarized, the deadlock was broken not by any new science, but by politicians. It was Senator George McGovern's bipartisan, nonlegislative Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs--and, to be precise, a handful of McGovern's staff members--that almost single-handedly changed nutritional policy in this country and initiated the process of turning the dietary fat hypothesis into dogma." See the entire article at:
The Soft Science of Dietary Fat / Articles Gary Taubes
What if It's All Been a Big Fat Lie? by Gary Taubes.
The More Fat You Eat the Lower Your Bad Triglycerides.
Studies Show Meat, Dairy, and Eggs Do Not Increase Breast Cancer.
Study Shows Saturated Fat is Not Linked to Diabetes.
Reference Books and Online Support Groups:
Active Low-Carber Forums - Atkins & Low-Carbohydrate Diet Support Group
You can talk with others who have bowel diseases or Candida about their experiences. Registration is free but is required before you can post your own message or question. You can click above to visit and read posts by others. Look for the "Candida Yeast & IBS" topic link.
Life Without Bread: How a Low-Carbohydrate Diet Can Save Your Life
Life Without Bread is an important addition to the growing body of literature on the benefits and importance of low-carb diet. Written by Christian Allan, Ph.D., and Wolfgang Lutz, M.D., the book is based on Dr. Lutz's experience using carbohydrate-restricted diets with thousands of patients for more than 40 years. It is based on extensive research in the medical and scientific literature and provides ample references. The book presents a unified theory of how high (and even moderate) levels of dietary carbohydrate cause or exacerbate various health problems and how carbohydrate restriction can help people to recover from those problems.
The book Life Without Bread by Christian Allan, Ph.D. and Wolfgang Lutz, M.D. has a chapter on gastrointestinal diseases. Don't be mislead by the title to believe the cure is the simple elimination of bread. Mr. Lutz's older book is out of print but has essentially the same information. It may even contain more detail than his new book above. Fortunately, Chapter VII: Gastro-Intestinal Tract of the older book can be read online.
Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution - Revised and Improved
The Atkins' New Diet Revolution is the best book for an initial dietary change and quick weight loss, reduced blood pressure, and reduced cholesterol. Look for the companion book for recipes. It has some very interesting case studies from the doctor's patients. It includes data from past civilizations proving the low-carbohydrate diet is the most healthy.
Robert C. Atkins, M.D. ISBN: 006001203X.
Dr. Atkins' Age-Defying Diet Revolution
This is Dr. Atkins newest book. The main topics are the cause, prevention, and cure for diabetes and heart disease which have become major health concerns in the United States and many other developed countries.
Robert C. Atkins, M.D. with Sheila Buff ISBN: 0312251890.
Protein Power Lifeplan
This book by Dr. Michael and Dr. Mary Dan Eades has an excellent chapter on "Leaky Gut Syndrome" which describes the cause of bowel diseases and autoimmune diseases.
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MEDICAL DISCLAIMER: All information is intended for your general knowledge only and is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment for specific medical conditions. You should seek prompt medical care for any specific health issues and consult your physician before starting a new fitness or nutrition regimen. The information contained in this online site and email is presented in summary form only and intended to provide broad consumer understanding and knowledge of dietary supplements. The information should not be considered complete and should not be used in place of a visit, call, consultation, or advice of your physician or other health care provider. We do not recommend the self-management of health problems. Information obtained by using our services is not exhaustive and does not cover all diseases, ailments, physical conditions, or their treatment. Should you have any health care related questions, please call or see your physician or other health care provider promptly. You should never disregard medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read here. We strongly suggest you select a physician who is knowledgeable and supportive of the low-carbohydrate diet. Many of the physicians listed on this page have health clinics.
Drugs and Doctors May be the Third Leading Cause of Death in U.S.
Why Most Published Research Findings Are False.
Pharmaceutical firms are inventing diseases to sell more drugs.
The following sites have excellent information on a good diet for healing and health preservation.
The World's Most Popular Diet & Nutrition Message Board
Life Healing Ministries
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Prophecy Today for the Body of Christ
The Great Bible Mystery
God's Election & Man's Free Will
Are the Sins of All Mankind Forgiven?
History of the New Testament Scriptures
Ultimate Nutrition Program for Healing & Health
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