Studies Prove Beef
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This web site will prove that eating red meat and natural animal fats while restricting carbohydrates is not only healthy but will prevent and cure many diseases.
The vegetarians of Southern India eat a low-calorie diet very high in carbohydrates and low in protein and fat. They have the shortest life span of any society on Earth, and their bodies have an extremely low muscle mass. They are weak and frail and the children clearly exhibit a failure to thrive. Their heart disease rate is double that of the meat eaters in Northern India. HL Abrams. Vegetarianism: An anthropological/nutritional evaluation. Journal of Applied Nutrition, 1980, 32:2:53-87. The Myths of Vegetarianism.
A Review of the Health and Benefits of Eating Meat
by Voyajer on LowCarber Forum August 19, 2002
Eur J Clin Nutr 2002 Mar;56 Suppl 1:S36-41
Meat, cancer and dietary advice to the public.
Nutrition Research Centre, South Bank University London, UK.
BACKGROUND: It has been claimed for many decades that meat is a risk factor for colorectal cancer, and that it has no compensating benefits in terms of cancer risk. The evidence for this has been critically reassessed.
METHODS: The epidemiological evidence, particularly that produced in recent years, has been re-examined to determine whether it is sufficiently consistent to warrant giving firm advice to the general public.
RESULTS: Far from being supportive, the epidemiological data does not justify this claim. A large mass of evidence is presented from case-control studies and prospective studies, in which the data from Europe are not consistent with those from the United States. This is because of the different contexts (in terms of meal composition) within which meat is consumed in different countries. In fact the epidemiological data are much more consistent with there being a protective role for fruit, vegetables and whole grain cereals and no role for meat in colorectal cancer, and a protective role in gastric cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Meat is a good source of protein, readily available iron, calcium, magnesium, selenium, zinc and a range of B vitamins. Since the evidence for any role in colon carcinogenesis is so weak, and since such a high proportion of women of child-bearing age are iron deficient, the consumption of meat, as part of a balanced and varied diet, should be actively encouraged.
The Science Behind Atkins: Meat, Cancer and Dietary Advice to the Public
Effect of a High Protein (Meat) Intake on Calcium Metabolism in Man
Spencer, H., Kramer, L., Osis, D., et al., "Effect of a High Protein (Meat) Intake on Calcium Metabolism in Man," The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 31, 1978, pages 2167-2180.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of high-protein intake on calcium excretion, retention and absorption in 14 men. Subjects on the high-protein diet ate two grams of protein per kilogram of bodyweight, while subjects on the low-protein control diet ate one gram of protein per kilogram of bodyweight. Meat constituted the majority of dietary protein. Both groups took part in studies that included a period of low calcium intake (200 mg per day) and normal calcium intake (800 mg per day). Two additional studies looked at calcium intakes of 1,100 and 2,000 mg per day. Fluid intake remained constant during all study phases. In addition to calcium-absorption studies, researchers measured urinary excretion of creatinine, calcium and phosphorus; body weight and 24-hour urine volume. Researchers found a lack of significant urinary calcium loss in the majority of the studies. The calcium absorption also did not differ significantly between the high and low protein intake groups. Urinary calcium excretion did increase moderately in two studies during the higher calcium intakes, however, in both cases, it decreased with time to normal levels. Researchers further concluded that in the present study, a high-protein intake from a high meat diet does not lead to a significant loss of calcium and that the urinary calcium decreases with time when it does occur. If the phosphorus intake is concomitantly increased, which will happen when more meat is consumed, the induced calcium loss diminishes or stops. Furthermore, the high meat content of the protein intake used in this present study is more representative of the usual high-protein diet consumed in the United States than are the purified proteins used in other studies, which have been shown to induce a calcium loss.
These findings can be applied to the Atkins Principle of Good Health. Eating an average of 300 grams of meat per day, subjects on the high-protein diet did not lose a significant amount of calcium in their urine. Eating more meat, subjects also took in more phosphorus, thus reducing, if not abolishing, urinary calcium loss. Calcium absorption was also not significantly affected. Carbohydrate-controlled diets, which may be high in meat, will not adversely affect calcium absorption or excretion.
The Science Behind Atkins: Effect of a High Protein (Meat) Intake on Calcium Metabolism in Man
Effect of Dietary Protein on Bone Loss in Elderly Men and Women
Hannan, M.T., Tucker K.L., Dawson-Hughes, B., et al., "Effect of Dietary Protein on Bone Loss in Elderly Men and Women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study," Journal of Bone Mineral Research, 15(12), 2000, pages 2504-2512.
Few studies have evaluated protein intake and bone loss in elders. Excess protein may be associated with negative calcium balance, whereas low protein intake has been associated with fracture. We examined the relation between baseline dietary protein and subsequent 4-year change in bone mineral density (BMD) for 391 women and 224 men from the population-based Framingham Osteoporosis Study. BMD (g/cm2) was assessed in 1988-1989 and in 1992-1993 at the femur, spine, and radius. Usual dietary protein intake was determined using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and expressed as percent of energy from protein intake. BMD loss over 4 years was regressed on percent protein intake, simultaneously adjusting for other baseline factors: age, weight, height, weight change, total energy intake, smoking, alcohol intake, caffeine, physical activity, calcium intake, and, for women, current estrogen use. Effects of animal protein on bone loss also were examined. Mean age at baseline (+/-SD) of 615 participants was 75 years (+/-4.4; range, 68-91 years). Mean protein intake was 68 g/day (+/-24.0; range, 14-175 g/day), and mean percent of energy from protein was 16% (+/-3.4; range, 7-30%). Proportional protein intakes were similar for men and women. Lower protein intake was significantly related to bone loss at femoral and spine sites (p < or = 0.04) with effects similar to 10 lb of weight. Persons in the lowest quartile of protein intake showed the greatest bone loss. Similar to the overall protein effect, lower percent animal protein also was significantly related to bone loss at femoral and spine BMD sites (all p < 0.01) but not the radial shaft (p = 0.23). Even after controlling for known confounders including weight loss, women and men with relatively lower protein intake had increased bone loss, suggesting that protein intake is important in maintaining bone or minimizing bone loss in elderly persons. Further, higher intake of animal protein does not appear to affect the skeleton adversely in this elderly population.
Effect of Dietary Protein on Bone Loss in Elderly Men and Women
Hunter-Gatherer Diets: Meat-Based and Heart Healthy
Cordain, L., Eaton, S.B., Miller, J.B., et al., "The Paradoxical Nature of Hunter-Gatherer Diets: Meat-Based, Yet Non-Atherogenic." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56 (Supplement 1), 2002, pages S42-52.
The following information is available at Pub Med and was not written by Atkins professionals.
OBJECTIVE: Field studies of twentieth century hunter-gathers (HG) showed them to be generally free of the signs and symptoms of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Consequently, the characterization of HG diets may have important implications in designing therapeutic diets that reduce the risk for CVD in Westernized societies. Based upon limited ethnographic data (n=58 HG societies) and a single quantitative dietary study, it has been commonly inferred that gathered plant foods provided the dominant energy source in HG diets.
METHOD AND RESULTS: In this review we have analyzed the 13 known quantitative dietary studies of HG and demonstrate that animal food actually provided the dominant (65%) energy source, while gathered plant foods comprised the remainder (35%). This data is consistent with a more recent, comprehensive review of the entire ethnographic data (n=229 HG societies) that showed the mean subsistence dependence upon gathered plant foods was 32%, whereas it was 68% for animal foods. Other evidence, including isotopic analyses of Paleolithic hominid collagen tissue, reductions in hominid gut size, low activity levels of certain enzymes, and optimal foraging data all point toward a long history of meat-based diets in our species. Because increasing meat consumption in Western diets is frequently associated with increased risk for CVD mortality, it is seemingly paradoxical that HG societies, who consume the majority of their energy from animal food, have been shown to be relatively free of the signs and symptoms of CVD.
CONCLUSION: The high reliance upon animal-based foods would not have necessarily elicited unfavorable blood lipid profiles because of the hypolipidemic effects of high dietary protein (19-35% energy) and the relatively low level of dietary carbohydrate (22-40% energy). Although fat intake (28-58% energy) would have been similar to or higher than that found in Western diets, it is likely that important qualitative differences in fat intake, including relatively high levels of MUFA and PUFA and a lower omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio, would have served to inhibit the development of CVD. Other dietary characteristics including high intakes of antioxidants, fiber, vitamins and phytochemicals along with a low salt intake may have operated synergistically with lifestyle characteristics (more exercise, less stress and no smoking) to further deter the development of CVD.
The Science Behind Atkins: Hunter-Gatherer Diets: Meat-Based and Heart Healthy
Animal Protein and Blood Pressure in Chinese
The following information is available at Pub Med and was not written by Atkins professionals.
Int J Epidemiol 2002 Feb;31(1):227-33
Inverse relationship between urinary markers of animal protein intake and blood pressure in Chinese: results from the WHO Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison (CARDIAC) Study.
Liu L, Ikeda K, Yamori Y; WHO-CARDIAC Study Group.
Otsuka Department of International Preventive Nutritional Medicine, WHO Collaborating Center for Research on Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kyoto University, Sakyo-Ku, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: This issue of the relationship between animal protein intake and blood pressure (BP) is unsolved. We examined the associations between urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion (a biological marker of animal protein intake) and BP in 11 Chinese population samples (Urumqi, Altai, Lhasa, Tulufan, Hetian, Guiyang, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Beijing, Shijiazhuang and Taipei).
METHODS: This was a multi-centre cross-sectional study. In each centre, 100 men and 100 women aged 48-56 years were selected randomly from the general population. 3-methylhistidine in 24-hour (24-h) urine collections was measured by an Amino Acid Analyzer (Hitachi 835, Ibaragi, Japan). The total study sample included 966 men and 1025 women. Subjects who failed to collect complete 24-h urine samples were excluded in data analyses regarding associations between 3MH and BP.
RESULTS: The results showed that: (1) for within-centre analyses of individuals, the 3MH and 3MH to creatinine ratios (3MH:cre) were significantly and negatively associated with BP and hypertension. These associations remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, sodium to potassium ratio, body mass index, calcium and magnesium. The pooled regression coefficients (SE) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) on 3MH were -0.020 (0.01) and -0.018 (0.01), and of SBP and DBP on 3MH:cre were -0.022 (0.01) and -0.016 (0.01), respectively. Subjects with lower 3MH excretion had higher relative risks of hypertension than those who had higher 3MH excretion. (2) In cross-centre analyses, mean SBP and DBP were significantly and negatively associated with the mean 3MH:cre across the 11 population samples (R(2) = 0.56, P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: The results provide strong evidence that animal protein intake is associated inversely with BP in Chinese populations.
Circulation 2001 Feb 13;103(6):856-63
Prospective study of fat and protein intake and risk of intraparenchymal hemorrhage in women.
Iso H, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rexrode K, Hu F, Hennekens CH, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Willett WC.
Channing Laboratory, Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
BACKGROUND:-Dietary animal fat and protein have been inversely associated with a risk of intraparenchymal hemorrhage in ecological studies.
METHODS AND RESULTS: In 1980, 85 764 women in the Nurses' Health Study cohort, who were 34 to 59 years old and free of diagnosed cardiovascular disease and cancer, completed dietary questionnaires. From these questionnaires, we calculated fat and protein intake. By 1994, after 1.16 million person-years of follow-up, 690 incident strokes, including 74 intraparenchymal hemorrhages, had been documented. Multivariate-adjusted risk of intraparenchymal hemorrhage was higher among women in the lowest quintile of energy-adjusted saturated fat intake than at all higher levels of intake (relative risk [RR], 2.36; 95% CI, 1.10 to 5.09; P:=0.03). For trans unsaturated fat, the corresponding RR was 2.50 (95% CI, 1.35 to 4.65; P:=0.004). Animal protein intake was inversely associated with risk (RR in the highest versus lowest quintiles, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.10 to 1.00; P:=0.04). The excess risk associated with low saturated fat intake was observed primarily among women with a history of hypertension (RR, 3.66; 95% CI, 1.09 to 12.3; P=0.04), but such an interaction was not seen for trans unsaturated fat or animal protein. These nutrients were not related to risk of other stroke subtypes. Dietary cholesterol and monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat were not related to risk of any stroke subtype.
CONCLUSIONS: Low intake of saturated fat and animal protein was associated with an increased risk of intraparenchymal hemorrhage, which may help to explain the high rate of this stroke subtype in Asian countries. The increased risk with low intake of saturated fat and trans unsaturated fat is compatible with the reported association between low serum total cholesterol and risk.
Voyajer on LowCarber.org
Do Asian Countries Benefit from Eating Rice? No.
The Japanese, and Asians in general, have much higher rates of of cancer of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas and liver.38 Asians throughout the world also have high rates of thyroid cancer.39
Lack of saturated fat and animal protein causes a high incidence of stroke in Asian countries. See study below.
The Japanese have 2 to 3 times a higher rate of stroke (cerebrovascular disease) and a higher rate of cancer (malignant neoplasms) than the United States. See:
World Health Organization - Table 3: Life Expectancy
38. Harras, Angela (ed.), Cancer Rates and Risks, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, 1996, 4th edition.
39. Searle, Charles E. (ed.), Chemical Carcinogens, ACS Monograph 173, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1976.
Eur J Clin Nutr 2002 Mar;56 Suppl 1:S19-24
Meat consumption and cancer of the large bowel.
Human Nutrition, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. S.Truswell~bioch.usyd.edu.au
Since the major reviews on diet and cancer by the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and by the British Department of Health's Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA) in 1997 and 1998, additional epidemiological studies relating (red) meat consumption and colorectal cancer have been published or found by search. These are collected here. Thirty adequate case-control studies have been published up to 1999 (from 16 different countries). Twenty of them found no significant association of (red) meat with colorectal cancer. Of the remaining 10 studies reporting an association, some obtained statistical significance only in rectal or colon cancers, another only in men, not women, or found a stronger association with pasta and rice, or used an inadequate food list in the food frequency questionnaire. Fifteen cohort studies have now been published. Only in three were significant associations of (red) meat found with colorectal cancer. Two of these positive studies were from the same group in the USA (relative risk 1.7). The results of the third positive study appear to conflict with data from part of the vegetarians follow up mortality study. Here, five groups of vegetarians (in three different countries) with socially matched controls were followed up (total 76 000 people). Mortality from colorectal cancer was not distinguishable between vegetarians and controls. While it is still possible that certain processed meats or sausages (with a variety of added ingredients) or meats cooked at very high temperature carry some risk, the relationship between meats in general and colorectal cancer now looks weaker than the 'probable' status it was judged to have by the WCRF in 1997.
Eur J Clin Nutr 2002 Mar;56 Suppl 1:S2-11
Meat and cancer: meat as a component of a healthy diet.
Department of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany. biesal~uni-hohenheim.de
Based on epidemiological studies it is assumed that meat, especially red meat, enhances risk for cancer, particularly of the colon, breast and prostate. Meat and meat products are important sources of protein, some micronutrients and fat. High fat intake has been blamed for correlation with different diseases, including cancer. Meat protein is reported to contribute to cancer formation. However, meat, including liver, is not only composed of fat and protein, it contains essential nutrients which appear exclusively in meat (vitamin A, vitamin B12) and micronutrients for which meat is the major source because of either high concentrations or better bioavailability (folate, selenium, zinc). In particular, vitamin A, folate and selenium are reported to be cancer-preventive, with respect to colon, breast and prostate cancer. Taken together, meat consists of a few, not clearly defined cancer-promoting and a lot of cancer-protecting factors. The latter can be optimized by a diet containing fruit and vegetables, which contain hundreds of more or less proven bioactive constituents, many of them showing antioxidative and anticarcinogenic effects in vitro.
The Science Behind Atkins: Meat as a Component of a Healthy Diet
Nutr Cancer 2001;40(2):103-7
Meat consumption and risk of stomach cancer in Uruguay: a case-control study.
De Stefani E, Ronco A, Brennan P, Boffetta P.
Registro Nacional de Cancer, Montevideo, Uruguay.
We previously reported an association between meat intake and stomach cancer in Uruguay: in that analysis, we did not control for total energy intake. To better study the relationship between intake of meat and meat constituents and gastric cancer, we conducted a further case-control study including 123 cases and 282 controls who were enrolled between September 1997 and August 1999. Total meat intake (highest tertile) was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 4.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.3-9.0]. After adjustment for total energy intake and intake of proteins and total fat by the residuals method, the OR was 1.7 (95% CI = 0.7-4.0). The energy-adjusted OR for high intake of processed meat was 1.9 (95% CI = 1.1-3.5). Intake of fried, barbecued, and salted meat and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine was not associated with risk of gastric cancer. The energy-adjusted OR of high intake of nitrosodimethylamine was 1.5 (95% CI = 0.9-2.8). These results suggest that, in a country with elevated meat consumption, total energy intake and intake of proteins and fat are powerful confounders in the relationship between meat intake and gastric cancer risk. However, a modest independent effect of meat, in particular of processed meat, is suggested.
Int J Epidemiol 2002 Feb;31(1):78-85
Meat and dairy food consumption and breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies.
Missmer SA, Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, Yaun SS, Adami HO, Beeson WL, van den Brandt PA, Fraser GE, Freudenheim JL, Goldbohm RA, Graham S, Kushi LH, Miller AB, Potter JD, Rohan TE, Speizer FE, Toniolo P, Willett WC, Wolk A, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Hunter DJ.
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115-6096, USA. stacey.missmer~channing.harvard.edu
BACKGROUND: More than 20 studies have investigated the relation between meat and dairy food consumption and breast cancer risk with conflicting results. Our objective was to evaluate the risk of breast cancer associated with meat and dairy food consumption and to assess whether non-dietary risk factors modify the relation.
METHODS: We combined the primary data from eight prospective cohort studies from North America and Western Europe with at least 200 incident breast cancer cases, assessment of usual food and nutrient intakes, and a validation study of the dietary assessment instrument. The pooled database included 351,041 women, 7379 of whom were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer during up to 15 years of follow-up.
RESULTS: We found no significant association between intakes of total meat, red meat, white meat, total dairy fluids, or total dairy solids and breast cancer risk. Categorical analyses suggested a J-shaped association for egg consumption where, compared to women who did not eat eggs, breast cancer risk was slightly decreased among women who consumed < 2 eggs per week but slightly increased among women who consumed > or = 1 egg per day.
CONCLUSIONS: We found no significant associations between intake of meat or dairy products and risk of breast cancer. An inconsistent relation between egg consumption and risk of breast cancer merits further investigation.
The Science Behind Atkins: Meat and Dairy Food and Breast Cancer
Nutr Rev 2001 Feb;59(2):37-47 Related Articles, Books, LinkOut
Nutr Rev. 2001 Nov;59(11):375-7.
Meat consumption and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic evidence.
Norat T, Riboli E.
Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
This article reviews the epidemiologic evidence on colorectal cancer risk and meat consumption from 32 case-control and 13 cohort studies published in English from 1970 to 1999 and retrieved from the Medline database. The results support the hypothesis that meat consumption is associated with a modest increase in colorectal cancer risk. This association, however, seems to have been more consistently found for red meat and processed meat. The studies on cooking methods and meat "doneness" are not consistent and the evidence is not conclusive.
Curr Opin Urol 2001 Sep;11(5):457-61
Fat reduction to prevent prostate cancer: waiting for more evidence?
Section of Urology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0330, USA. moyad~umich.edu
Complementary medicine has become an important area of interest for patients and researchers around the world. The utilization of some of these therapies by many individuals makes it imperative to understand whether they have any role in treatment of cancer or other diseases. Some of such therapies may play a role in the prevention of prostate cancer. Clinical trials are addressing this issue, and whether these products could also improve prognosis of prostate cancer. That dietary fat reduction may help to prevent prostate cancer is supported by numerous case-control studies reported over the past several decades, but recent prospective studies suggest that the impact of fat reduction in this regard may not be great. Clinicians should be careful not to suggest such a benefit until more research provides a better picture of the situation. Breast cancer is probably the best example of why more research into dietary changes for reduction in cancer risk is needed. Once believed to play a significant role, recent prospective studies suggest that dietary fat reduction may have little effect on breast cancer prevention, although some interesting insights have been gained with regard to the method of meat preparation and the influence of genetics. Fat reduction, together with soy products or other plant estrogen foods, may have a symbiotic relationship. Numerous healthy lifestyle changes incorporated and practiced at one time (healthy diet, attainment and maintenance of normal weight, soy consumption, among others) may hold some promise in the area of cancer prevention. In the meantime any healthy lifestyle or dietary change should be encouraged, because it may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is still the number one cause of mortality. It is also an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Regardless, complementary medicine should probably be discussed with any patient who is initiating or undergoing conventional treatment, because of the cardiovascular benefits and overall potential impact on all-cause mortality. Whether such therapies impact on prostate carcinoma remains to be determined through additional prospective investigations.
Br J Cancer 2001 Aug 3;85(3):357-61
Dietary fat, cholesterol and colorectal cancer in a prospective study.
Jarvinen R, Knekt P, Hakulinen T, Rissanen H, Heliovaara M.
Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, Kuopio, FIN-70211, Finland.
The relationships between consumption of total fat, major dietary fatty acids, cholesterol, consumption of meat and eggs, and the incidence of colorectal cancers were studied in a cohort based on the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey. Baseline (1967-1972) information on habitual food consumption over the preceding year was collected from 9959 men and women free of diagnosed cancer. A total of 109 new colorectal cancer cases were ascertained late 1999. High cholesterol intake was associated with increased risk for colorectal cancers. The relative risk between the highest and lowest quartiles of dietary cholesterol was 3.26 (95% confidence interval 1.54-6.88) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, occupation, smoking, geographic region, energy intake and consumption of vegetables, fruits and cereals. Consumption of total fat and intake of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fatty acids were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Nonsignificant associations were found between consumption of meat and eggs and colorectal cancer risk. The results of the present study indicate that high cholesterol intake may increase colorectal cancer risk, but do not suggest the presence of significant effects of dietary fat intake on colorectal cancer incidence.
J Epidemiol 1999 Aug;9(4):275-84
Factor analysis of digestive cancer mortality and food consumption in 65 Chinese counties.
Zhuo XG, Watanabe S.
Department of Nutritional Science, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Japan.
Dietary factors were analyzed for the regional difference of GI tract cancer mortality rates in China. Sixty-five rural counties were selected among a total of 2,392 counties to represent a range of rates for seven most prevalent cancers. The dietary data in the selected 65 counties were obtained by three-day dietary record of households in 1983. The four digestive cancer mortality rates (annual cases per 100,000 standardized truncated rates for ages 35-64) and per capita food consumption were analyzed by the principal components factor analysis. Esophageal cancer was associated with poor area, dietary pattern rich in starchy tubers, and salt, lack of consumption of meat, eggs, vegetables and rice. Stomach cancer seemed to be less associated with diet in this study because of its small model Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy, suggesting some other carcinogenic factors would play more important role in the development of this cancer in China. The colon and rectal cancer showed close relation to diet; rich in sea vegetables, eggs, soy sauce, meat and fish, while lacking in consumption of milk and dairy products. Rapeseed oil was more important risk factor for colon cancer than that of rectum. Rice, processed starch and sugar were closely associated with colon cancer, supporting the insulin/colon cancer hypothesis.
BMJ 1999 Jul 17;319(7203):187-8
Diet and the prevention of cancer. No evidence has linked ovarian cancer with high intakes of fat and meat.
BMJ 1999 Jul 17;319(7203):187;
Diet and prevention of cancer. Whether meat is a risk factor for cancer remains uncertain.
Am J Clin Nutr 1999 Sep;70(3 Suppl):516S-524S
Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies.
Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M, Appleby PN, Beral V, Reeves G, Burr ML, Chang-Claude J, Frentzel-Beyme R, Kuzma JW, Mann J, McPherson K.
Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Oxford, United Kingdom. key~icrf.icnet.uk
We combined data from 5 prospective studies to compare the death rates from common diseases of vegetarians with those of nonvegetarians with similar lifestyles. A summary of these results was reported previously; we report here more details of the findings. Data for 76172 men and women were available. Vegetarians were those who did not eat any meat or fish (n = 27808). Death rate ratios at ages 16-89 y were calculated by Poisson regression and all results were adjusted for age, sex, and smoking status. A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled estimates of effect for all studies combined. There were 8330 deaths after a mean of 10.6 y of follow-up. Mortality from ischemic heart disease was 24% lower in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians (death rate ratio: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.94; P<0.01). The lower mortality from ischemic heart disease among vegetarians was greater at younger ages and was restricted to those who had followed their current diet for >5 y. Further categorization of diets showed that, in comparison with regular meat eaters, mortality from ischemic heart disease was 20% lower in occasional meat eaters, 34% lower in people who ate fish but not meat, 34% lower in lactoovovegetarians, and 26% lower in vegans. There were no significant differences between vegetarians and non vegetarians in mortality from cerebrovascular disease, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, or all other causes combined.
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Homocysteine Levels in Vegetarians Higher Than Omnivores
The following information is available at Pub Med and was not written by Atkins professionals.
Hung CJ, Huang PC, Lu SC, et al.
Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.
Plasma homocysteine levels in Taiwanese vegetarians are higher than those of omnivores.
J Nutr 2002 Feb;132(2):152-8
Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and may result from a deficiency of folate, vitamin B-6 or vitamin B-12. Because vitamin B-12 deficiency is often associated with vegetarianism, this study was designed to examine the effect of Taiwanese vegetarian diets on B-vitamin status and plasma homocysteine levels.
Female Buddhist lacto-vegetarians (n = 45; 31-45 y) and matched omnivores (n = 45) recruited in Hualien, Taiwan, were investigated.
Taiwanese vegetarians consumed normal amount of folate, but only 21% of Taiwan Recommended Daily Nutrient Allowances (RDNA) values of vitamin B-12. Compared with the omnivores, the vegetarians had significantly higher levels of plasma folate (14.79 +/- 7.70 vs. 11.98 +/- 8.29 nmol/L), but lower levels of vitamin B-12 (207.7 +/- 127.1 vs. 403.5 +/- 138.9 pmol/L). Fasting plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in vegetarians than in omnivores (mean: 11.20 +/- 4.27 vs. 8.64 +/- 2.06 micromol/L; median: 10.5 vs. 8.5 micromol/L). Fasting plasma homocysteine was inversely correlated with plasma folate and vitamin B-12 in the vegetarian group. Multiple regression analysis revealed that plasma folate, vitamin B-12 and creatinine were independent determinants of homocysteine variation and contributed to 38.6% of homocysteine variation in the vegetarians. Compared with the omnivores, vegetarians also had significantly lower serum levels of valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, alanine and arginine, but higher levels of glycine. In the vegetarian group, fasting plasma homocysteine correlated negatively with serum threonine, lysine, histidine, arginine and cystine, and these amino acids contributed to 38.7% of homocysteine variation.
In conclusion, the Buddhist nuns who consumed a lacto-vegetarian diet had mildly elevated fasting plasma homocysteine levels presumably due to lower levels of plasma vitamin B-12.
The Science Behind Atkins: Homocysteine Levels in Vegetarians Higher Than Omnivores
Fat Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
The following information is available at Pub Med and was not written by Atkins professionals.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Jun;73(6):1001-2.
Dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in women.
Salmeron J, Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rimm EB, Willett WC.
Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston 02115, USA.
BACKGROUND: The long-term relations between specific types of dietary fat and risk of type 2 diabetes remain unclear.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the relations between dietary fat intakes and the risk of type 2 diabetes.
DESIGN: We prospectively followed 84204 women aged 34-59 y with no diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer in 1980. Detailed dietary information was assessed at baseline and updated in 1984, 1986, and 1990 by using validated questionnaires. Relative risks of type 2 diabetes were obtained from pooled logistic models adjusted for non dietary and dietary covariates.
RESULTS: During 14 y of follow-up, 2507 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were documented. Total fat intake, compared with equivalent energy intake from carbohydrates, was not associated with risk of type 2 diabetes; for a 5% increase in total energy from fat, the relative risk (RR) was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.02). Intakes of saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids were also not significantly associated with the risk of diabetes. However, for a 5% increase in energy from polyunsaturated fat, the RR was 0.63 (0.53, 0.76; P < 0.0001) and for a 2% increase in energy from trans fatty acids the RR was 1.39 (1.15, 1.67; P = 0.0006). We estimated that replacing 2% of energy from trans fatty acids isoenergetically with polyunsaturated fat would lead to a 40% lower risk (RR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.75).
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that total fat and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid intakes are not associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in women, but that trans fatty acids increase and polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce risk. Substituting nonhydrogenated polyunsaturated fatty acids for trans fatty acids would likely reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes substantially.
Biblical Support For Eating Meat and Against Vegetarianism.
Prepared by Voyajer on Low-Carber Forum.
Adam and Eve were "perfect" humans with perfect bodies, perfect digestive systems, and perfect metabolisms. They were told by God to eat only fruits and vegetables because they were not sinners.
Genesis 1:29 And God said, "See, I have given you every herb [that] yields seed which [is] on the face of all the earth, and every tree whose fruit yields seed; to you it shall be for food. (NKJV)
Anyone who is not a sinner now should follow this advice because his perfect body can take this kind of diet.
As for everyone born after Adam and Eve sinned, they are all sinners and do not have the perfect bodies to be vegetarian. God also placed the fear of man in the animals because they were now to be man's food.
Genesis 2 "And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be on every beast of the earth, on every bird of the air, on all that move [on] the earth, and on all the fish of the sea. They are given into your hand. 3 "Every moving thing that lives shall be food for you. I have given you all things, even as the green herbs." (NKJV)
Thereafter, the faithful servants of God: Abraham, Isaac and Jacob ate meat (Genesis 27), Moses and the Israelites (Exodus 12 and 16), Aaron, the Levites and priests (Exodus 29). Eating meat became part of the Mosaic Law along with the initial ten commandments (Deuteronomy 12).
God promises meat to his people:
Isaiah 25:6 On this mountain the LORD Almighty will prepare a feast of rich food for all peoples, a banquet of aged wine-- the best of meats and the finest of wines. (NIV)
Christians are admonished to eat meat:
1 Corinthians 10: 25 Eat whatever is sold in the meat market, asking no questions for conscience' sake; 26 for "the earth [is] the Lord's, and all its fullness." (NKJV)
Jesus fed 5,000 people fish by a miracle:
Mark 6:39 Then He commanded them to make them all sit down in groups on the green grass. 40 So they sat down in ranks, in hundreds and in fifties. 41 And when He had taken the five loaves and the two fish, He looked up to heaven, blessed and broke the loaves, and gave [them] to His disciples to set before them; and the two fish He divided among [them] all. 42 So they all ate and were filled. 43 And they took up twelve baskets full of fragments and of the fish. 44 Now those who had eaten the loaves were about five thousand men. (NKJV)
Was Jesus trying to give 5,000 people cancer by feeding them meat instead of vegetables? Certainly not. Did he not have the power to feed them fruits and vegetables instead of fish? Yes, but He did not .Jesus fed the people with fish because meat is healthy and wholesome food.
Reference Books and Online Support Groups:
Active Low-Carber Forums - Atkins & Low Carbohydrate Diet Support Group
You can talk with others about their low-carbohydrate diet experiences. Registration is free but is required before you can post your own message or question. You can click above to visit and read posts by others. Look for the topic link of your choice.
Life Without Bread: How a Low-Carbohydrate Diet Can Save Your Life
Life Without Bread is an important addition to the growing body of literature on the benefits and importance of low-carb diet. Written by Christian Allan, Ph.D., and Wolfgang Lutz, M.D., the book is based on Dr. Lutz's experience using carbohydrate restricted diets with thousands of patients for more than 40 years. It is based on extensive research in the medical and scientific literature, and provides ample references. The book presents a unified theory of how high (and even "moderate") levels of dietary carbohydrate cause or exacerbate various health problems, and how carbohydrate restriction can help people to recover from those problems.
The book Life Without Bread by Christian Allan, Ph.D. and Wolfgang Lutz, M.D. has a chapter on gastrointestinal diseases. Don't be mislead by the title to believe the cure is the simple elimination of bread. Mr. Lutz's older book is out of print but has essentially the same information. It may even contain more detail than his new book above. Fortunately, Chapter VII: Gastro-Intestinal Tract of the older book can be read online.
Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution - Revised and Improved
The Atkins' New Diet Revolution is the best book for an initial dietary change and quick weight loss, reduced blood pressure and reduced cholesterol. Look for the companion book for recipes. It has some very interesting case studies from the doctor's patients. It includes data from past civilizations proving the low-carbohydrate diet is the most healthy.
Robert C. Atkins, M.D. ISBN: 006001203X.
Dr. Atkins' Age-Defying Diet Revolution
This is Dr. Atkins newest book. The main topics are the cause, prevention and cure for diabetes and heart disease which have become major health concerns in the United States and many other developed countries.
Robert C. Atkins, M.D. with Sheila Buff ISBN: 0312251890.
Protein Power Lifeplan
This book by Dr. Michael and Dr. Mary Dan Eades has an excellent chapter on "Leaky Gut Syndrome" which describes the cause of bowel diseases and autoimmune diseases.
The following sites have excellent information on a good diet for healing and health preservation.
The World's Most Popular Diet & Nutrition Message Board
Life Healing Ministries
Jerry S. from Augusta, Georgia writes, "Thank you for such a wonderful web site.... the nutrition pages opened my eyes to the truth - and saved my life!"
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