Vitamin Deficiencies and Vitamin Toxicities

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Vitamin A - retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, carotenoids such as beta-carotene

Hypovitaminosis A
(Deficiency Symptoms)

Hypervitaminosis A
(Toxicity Symptoms)

Bones/Teeth Cessation of bone growth, painful joints, impaired enamel formation, cracks in teeth, tendency to decay, atrophy of dentin-forming cells Increased activity of osteoclasts causing decalcification, joint pain, fragility, stunted growth, and thickening of long bones; increase of pressure inside skull, mimicking brain tumor; headaches
Blood Anemia, often masked by dehydration Loss of hemoglobin and potassium by red blood cells, cessation of menstruation, slowed clotting time, easily induced bleeding
Eyes Night blindness, changes in epithelial tissue (hyperkeratinization), drying (xerosis), triangular gray spots on eye (Bitot's spots), irreversible drying (keratomalacia), and corneal degeneration (blindness) None
Skin Plugging of hair follicles with keratin, forming white lumps (hyperkeratosis) Dryness; itching; peeling; rashes; dry, scaling lips; cracking and bleeding of lips; nosebleeds; loss of hair; brittle nails
Digestive System Changes in lining; diarrhea Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss
Immune System Suppression of immune reactions: frequent respiratory, digestive, bladder, vaginal, and kidney infections Overstimulation of immune reactions
Nervous/Muscular Systems Brain and spinal cord growth too fast for stunted skull and spine Loss of appetite, irritability, fatigue, insomnia, restlessness, headaches, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, interference with thyroxin
Other Kidney stones Amenorrhea, jaundice, enlargement of liver and spleen, massive accumulation of fat and vitamin A in liver

Adapted from Understanding Nutrition, Seventh Edition. Eleanor Noss Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes, p. 400-401.

Vitamin D - calciferol, cholecalciferol, dihydroxy vitamin D

Rickets in Children
Hypovitaminosis D
(Deficiency Symptoms)

Osteomalacia in Adults
Hypovitaminosis D
(Deficiency Symptoms)

Hypervitaminosis D
(Toxicity Symptoms)

Bones/Teeth Faulty calcification, resulting in misshapen bones (bowing of legs) and retarded growth; enlargement of ends of long bones (knees, wrists); deformities of ribs (bowed, with heads or knobs); delayed closing of fontanel, resulting in rapid enlargement of dead; slow eruption of teeth; malformed, decay-prone teeth Softening effect: deformities of limbs spine, thorax, and pelvis; demineralization; pain in pelvis, lower back, and legs; bone fractures. Increased calcium withdrawal
Blood None Decreased calcium and/or phosphorus, increased alkaline phosphatase Increased calcium and phosphorus concentration
Nervous/Muscular Systems Lax muscles resulting in protrusion of abdomen; muscles spasms Involuntary twitching, muscle spasms Loss of appetite, headache, weakness, fatigue, excessive thirst, irritability, apathy
Excretory System Increased calcium in stools, decreased calcium in urine None Increased excretion of calcium in urine, kidney stones, irreversible renal damage
Other Abnormality high secretion of parathormone None Calcification of soft tissues (blood vessels, kidneys, heart, lungs, tissue around joints), death

Comment:

Animal-rights wackos have propagated the lies about vitamin A and D toxicity from cod liver oil in hopes that people will avoid taking it because it is an animal product. Other unknowledgeable people pass the false information on and on and on until nearly everyone accepts it.  One teaspoon of Carlson's lemon flavored cod liver oil has about 20% RDA of vitamin A and 100% RDA of vitamin D, or 400 IU.  This website author has taken 2 tablespoons (6 teaspoons) per day for several years with only healthy benefits. This gives just a little more than the RDA of vitamin A and 6 times the level of vitamin D.  However, you would have to take 30 tablespoons per day for 6 months to reach the slightest level of toxicity of vitamin D.  Polar bear liver can have such a high level of vitamin D that it killed early explorers in just one meal. So, don't eat any polar bear liver....LOL. A "global warming" brainwashing scare was presented on the Internet and TV on December 1, 2006 in which polar bears looked forlorn as if trapped on the floating piece of ice? This brainwashing story is run several times a year on the Internet and TV. Actually, the bears are simply looking suspiciously at the humans nearby who are taking pictures. The story is nonsense and brainwashing. The bears can swim for 100 miles in open sea just for the fun of it, and they know where they are going. The ice along Northern Canada and Alaska has always melted at the shoreline in summer. That is why explorers tried to search for the Northwest Passage, a route that was ice free around Northern Canada. The passage is rarely fully open, but an icebreaker has made the trip from Greenland to Alaska. The Franklin party comprised of two ships tried to find the passage in 1825. They knew they would be trapped in the ice all winter and prepared for it by bringing guns, food and lime juice for vitamin C. They all died anyway from scurvy, a disease caused by vitamin C deficiency. The men on the trapped ships could see the nearby Eskimos waving as they went about their daily routine hunting seals, raising babies, taking care of old people and feeding their dogs. The Eskimos had no guns and ate a 100% meat diet. Professional nutritionists brainwash the public by claiming that meat has no vitamin C. Actually, the Eskimo's 100% meat diet prevented scurvy and could cure scurvy in those who suffer from it as proven by arctic explorer Vilhjalmur Stefansson.

Stefansson 1 - Eskimos Prove An All Meat Diet Provides Excellent Health.   Read the book, My Life With The Eskimos, if you can find it. There is a link to a used book source on the above web page.

THE MERCK MANUAL, Vitamin Deficiency And Toxicity.

"Vitamin D 1000 μg (40,000 IU)/day produces toxicity within 1 to 4 mo in infants; as little as 50 to 75 μg (2000 to 3000 IU)/day, if taken for years, can produce toxicity. In adults, taking 2500 μg (100,000 IU)/day for several months can produce toxicity."

TEST: Any health advisor, professional nutritionist or medical doctor that discourages taking cod liver oil by warning of vitamin A or D toxicity is a wacko. An adult would have to take 30 tablespoons per day for six months to reach any level of vitamin D toxicity. If you believe the vitamin A or D toxicity stories, you have been brainwashed.

BTW, Did you see the "global warming" brainwashing scare on the Internet and TV on December 1, 2006 in which the polar bears are looking forlorn on the floating piece of ice? This brainwashing story is run several times a year on the Internet and TV. Actually, the bears are simply suspicious of the humans nearby. The story is all nonsense and brainwashing. The bears can swim for 100 miles in open sea just for the fun of it, and they know where they are going. The ice has always melted at the shoreline in summer along Northern Canada and Alaska. That is why explorers tried to search for the Northwest Passage, a route that was ice free around Northern Canada. The passage is never fully open, but an icebreaker has made the trip from Greenland to Alaska. The Franklin party comprised of two ships tried to find the passage in 1825. They knew they would be trapped in the ice all winter and prepared for it with their guns, food and lime juice for vitamin C. They all died anyway from scurvy, a disease caused by vitamin C deficiency. The nearby Eskimos would wave to the men on the ships as they went about their daily routine hunting seals, raising babies, taking care of old people and feeding their dogs. They had no guns and ate a 100% meat diet. Professional nutritionists will tell you meat has no vitamin C. That is just another example of brainwashing.

Stefansson 1 - Eskimos Prove An All Meat Diet Provides Excellent Health.   Read the book, My Life With The Eskimos, if you can find it. The link is on the above web page to a used book source.

The major story on December 1, 2006 was not about the  polar bear trapped on the ice floe. It was about Chicago trapped in the ice of a major winter blizzard. More than 400 flights were cancelled at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport and 2.4 million people are without power. Ice is everywhere. Trees are collapsing under the ice load and taking down power lines. Schools are closed.

TEST: If you believe the story about polar bears being trapped on a melting ice floe, you have been brainwashed.

Adapted from Understanding Nutrition, Seventh Edition. Eleanor Noss Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes, p. 408.

Vitamin E - Alpha-tocopherol, tocopherol, tocotrienol

Hypovitaminosis E
(Deficiency Symptoms)

Hypervitaminosis E
(Toxicity Symptoms)

Blood/Circulatory System Red blood cell breakage, anemia Augments effects of anticlotting medication
Digestive System None General discomfort
Nervous/Muscular System Degeneration, weakness, difficulty walking, severe pain in calf muscles None

Adapted from Understanding Nutrition, Seventh Edition. Eleanor Noss Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes, p. 411.

Vitamin K - menadione, menaquinone, phylloquinone, napthoquinone

Hypovitaminosis K
(Deficiency Symptoms)

Hypervitaminosis K
(Toxicity Symptoms)

Blood/Circulatory System Hemorrhaging Interference with anticlotting medications; vitamin K analogues may cause jaundice, red blood cell hemolysis, and brain damage.

Adapted from Understanding Nutrition, Seventh Edition. Eleanor Noss Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes, p. 416.

Vitamin B1 - Thiamin

Deficiency Symptoms
Diseases Beriberi Dease
Blood/Circulatory System Edema, enlarged heart, abnormal heart rhythms, heart failure
Nervous/Muscular Systems Degeneration, wasting, weakness, painful calf muscles, low morale, difficulty walking, loss of ankle and knee-jerk reflexes, mental confusion, paralysis

Adapted from Understanding Nutrition, Seventh Edition. Eleanor Noss Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes, p. 349.

Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin

Deficiency Symptoms
Diseases Ariboflavinosis Disease
Mouth, Gums, Tongue Cracks and redness at corners of mouth; painful, smooth, purplish-red tongue
Nervous System and Eyes Inflamed eyelids and sensitivity to light, reddening of cornea
Other Skin rash

Adapted from Understanding Nutrition, Seventh Edition. Eleanor Noss Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes, p. 353.

Vitamin B3 - Niacin, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, niacinamide

Deficiency Symptomsms Toxicity Symptoms
Diseases Pellagra Niacin Toxicity
Digestive System Diarrhea Diarrhea, heartburn, nausea, ulcer irritation, vomiting
Mouth, Gum, Tongue Inflamed, swollen, smooth tongue None
Nervous System Irritability, loss of appetite, weakness, dizziness, mental confusion progressing to psychosis or delirium Fainting, dizziness
Skin Bilateral symmetrical dermatitis, especially on areas exposed to sun Painful flush and rash ("niacin flush"), excessive sweating
Other None Liver damage, low blood pressure

Adapted from Understanding Nutrition, Seventh Edition. Eleanor Noss Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes, p. 355.

Biotin

Deficiency Symptoms
Blood/Circulatory System Abnormal heart action
Digestive System Loss of appetite, nausea
Nervous/Muscular Systems Depression, hallucinations, muscle pain, weakness, fatigue
Skin Drying, scaly dermatitis, hair loss

Adapted from Understanding Nutrition, Seventh Edition. Eleanor Noss Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes, p. 358.

Pantothenic Acid

Deficiency Symptoms Toxicity Symptoms
Digestive System Vomiting, intestinal distress Occasional diarrhea
Nervous System Insomnia, fatigue None
Other None Water retention (rare)

Adapted from Understanding Nutrition, Seventh Edition. Eleanor Noss Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes, p. 359.

Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine

Deficiency Symptoms Toxicity Symptoms
Blood/Circulatory System Anemia (small-cell type) Bloating
Mouth, Gums, Tongue Smooth tongue, cracked corners of the mouth None
Nervous/Muscular Systems Abnormal brain wave patter, irritability, muscle twitching, convulsions Depression, fatigue, irritability, headaches, nerve damage leading to numbness and muscle weakness
Skin Irritation of sweat glands, dermatitis None
Other Kidney stones Bone pain

Adapted from Understanding Nutrition, Seventh Edition. Eleanor Noss Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes, p. 361.

Folate - Folic acid, folacin, pteroylglutamic acid (PG)

Deficiency Symptoms Toxicity Symptoms
Blood/Circulatory System Anemia (large-cell type) None
Digestive System Heartburn, diarrhea (loss of villi and their enzymes), constipation None
Immune System Suppression, frequent infections None
Mouth, Gums, Tongue Smooth, red tongue None
Nervous System Depression, mental confusion, fainting, fatigue None
Other None Masks vitamin B12-deficiency symptoms

Adapted from Understanding Nutrition, Seventh Edition. Eleanor Noss Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes, p. 366.

Vitamin B12 - Cobalamin, cyanocobalamin

Deficiency Symptoms
Diseases Pernicious Anemia
Blood/Circulatory System Anemia (large-cell type)
Mouth, Gums, Tongue Smooth tongue
Nervous System Fatigue, degeneration of peripheral nerves progressing to paralysis
Skin Hypersensitivity

Adapted from Understanding Nutrition, Seventh Edition. Eleanor Noss Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes, p. 370.

Vitamin C - Ascorbic acid

Deficiency Symptoms Toxicity Symptoms
Diseases Scurvy None
Blood/Circulatory System Anemia (small-cell type), artherosclerotic plaques, pinpoint hemorrhages None
Digestive System None Nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea
Immune System Suppression, frequent infections None
Mouth, Gums, Tongue Bleeding gums, loosened teeth None
Nervous/Muscular Systems Muscle degeneration and pain, hysteria, depression Headache, fatigue, insomnia
Skeletal System Bone fragility, joint pain None
Skin Rough skin, blotchy bruises Hot flashes, rashes
Other Failure of wounds to heal Interference with medical tests, aggravation of gout symptoms, urinary tract problems, kidney stones

Adapted from Understanding Nutrition, Seventh Edition. Eleanor Noss Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes, p. 379.

Comparison of Water-Soluble and Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Water-Soluble Vitamins:
B Vitamins and Vitamin C
Fat-Soluble Vitamins:
Vitamins A, D, E and K
Absorption Directly into the blood First into the lymph, then the blood
Transport Travel freely Many require protein carriers
Storage Freely circulate in water-filled parts of the body Trapped in the cells associated with fat
Excretion Kidneys detect and remove excess in urine Less readily excreted; tend to remain in fat-storage sites
Toxicity Unlikely to reach toxic levels when consumed in excess Likely to reach toxic levels when consumed in excess
Requirements Needed in frequent, small doses Needed in periodic doses

Adapted from Understanding Nutrition, Seventh Edition. Eleanor Noss Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes, p. 347.

Links to Vitamin Toxicity Resources
Vitamin A and D are not nearly the overdose risk as claimed.
Vitamin K3 synthetic can be toxic, but Vitamins K1 and K2 are not.
Synthetic vitamin E has been proven to be unhealthy. Take natural mixed tocopherols.

Vitamin and Mineral Deficiency and Toxicity Facts - Acu-Cell Nutrition
Nutrition, Nutritional Deficiency Symptoms
Vitamin Deficiency and Toxicity on Bible Life Ministries.
Vitamin Toxicity on Medscape.
THE MERCK MANUAL, Vitamin Overview, Deficiency, and Toxicity.
THE MERCK MANUAL, Mineral Overview, Deficiency, and Toxicity.
THE MERCK MANUAL, Electrolytes Overview, Deficiencies, and Toxicity.
Dietary Supplements - Warnings and Safety Information - U. S. Food and Drug Administration.

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